Tech Glossary

Tech Glossary

Welcome. This page serves as a Tech Glossary – an alphabetized collection of terms used in reference to IT and cybersecurity. It contains words you may often hear and maybe unclear of their meaning. We hope this collection assists you in understanding these terms and the reasoning behind them.

Tech Glossary:

Algorithm: A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations. A computer does this.

Cache: Portion of a computer’s hard disk space where a browser temporarily stores recently visited webpages to speed up internet surfing.

Cookie: A small file created by a website stored in the user’s computer either temporarily for that session or permanently on the hard disk (persistent cookie).
Cookies provide a way for the website to recognize you and keep track of your preferences.

Encryption: The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security by scrambling the contents into an unreadable format. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to read it. Encryption does not in itself prevent interception. However, it will deny the message content to the interceptor.

Firewall: A part of a computer system or network designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.

IP Address: An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An
IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Think of your home address. It has a number, street name, etc. to help identify where your house is
located. An IP address tells the internet or your home network where your computer is.

Malware: An umbrella term used to refer to various forms of hostile or intrusive software, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware, and other malicious
programs. It can take the form of executable code, scripts, active content, and other software.

Have questions about these terms? Please email us.

Phishing: The activity of defrauding an online account holder of financial information by posing as a legitimate company.

Social engineering: A cyberattack vector that relies heavily on human interaction. They often involve tricking people into breaking normal security procedures.

Spear-phishing: An email spoofing fraud attempt that targets a specific organization, seeking unauthorized access to confidential data. Spear-phishing attempts are not typically initiated by “random hackers.” Instead, perpetrators are more likely to conduct them for financial gain, trade secrets, or military information.

Service Set Identifier (SSID): A case-sensitive, 32-alalphanumeric character unique identifier attached to the header of packets sent over a wireless network. 

Two-Factor Authentication: A method of confirming a user’s claimed identity by utilizing a combination of two different components.

Virtual Private Network (VPN): A private network extends across a public internet network. This creates an additional layer of security over an insecure network. VPNs are useful if the network infrastructure alone is unable to provide them.

Should you encounter any terms not listed and require assistance, feel free to email us at, and we will gladly assist.